Study in Taiwan Learning plus Adventure

Quick Facts about Taiwan

Taiwan and its surrounding islands, situated in East Asia at the northwestern edge of the Pacific, possess an endless variety of terrains, forests, agricultural products, and marine ecologies, as well as a diversity of ethnic cultures along with enchanting human customs and practices. You may get to know about Taiwan from the information as below.

  • Major cities

    Taipei City

    Taipei City is located in northern Taiwan, including the northeastern part of the Taipei Basin and the surrounding hilly region. It is divided into twelve administrative districts. The population is around 2.67 million and with an area around 271 square kilometers.Taipei City houses various ethnic groups, such as the indigenous people, Minnanese, Hakkas, mainlanders, new immigrants and expats. 

    The development of Taipei was relatively late compared to other major cities on the west coast of Taiwan. The area of Taipei was the territory of Taiwanese plains indigenous peoples before the Han Chinese settlers starting to migrant from the south of the island at the beginning of the 18th century. In 1884, the Taipei City Walls were established under the Qing Dynasty administration, marking the economic shift from Tainan, the old southern capital, to Taipei. Taipei has thus been the political, economic and cultural center over a century, and became the most internationally recognized metropolis of Taiwan today.

    Taipei City Government:

    New Taipei City

    Situated in the northern part of Taiwan, surrounding the country’s capital, New Taipei City has an estimated population of over 3.9 million and an area of 2052 km2. Given its location advantages, today’s New Taipei City is a major city of business and industries second to Taipei City. As a result, 70% of the population is from different parts of Taiwan. The administrative center of New Taipei City is located in Banqiao district, which is also the most populated and thriving area of the city.

    The city’s region was once the Plain Indigenous People’s inhabitancy. The earliest history of Mainland Chinese immigrants can be traced back as early as 1620 A.D. Through later development and prosperity of the country, Tamsui district has become an international commercial port in 1850 A.D. British Consulate and stores were being established in the region which help promote the local tea business, resulting in massive export of the tea leaves to Europe. 

    Before upgrading to special municipality back in 2010, New Taipei City was once named Taipei County. The era of Taipei County started in 1945. After the end of Japanese’s governance, the Republic of China (Taiwan) government turned Taipei City and Keelung City into provincial administrative municipality while making the rest of then Taipei region into Taipei County. Since this separation, Taipei City and County have officially become independent administrative bodies. The city of New Taipei then gradually develop into the largest city of Taiwan as it is today.

    New Taipei City Government:

    Taoyuan City

    Taoyuan city is in northwestern Taiwan, next to the New Taipei City. Since the earliest Han Chinese settler came in around 1713, over 2 centuries, Taoyuan has been gradually developing as one of the major cities in northern Taiwan. When the Taoyuan International Airport opened in 1979, a large number of passengers and freight transport made it the most important gateway of Taiwan. Therefore, the development of the city has significantly accelerated. From a satellite city of Taipei to the fourth largest city of Taiwan, Taoyuan had been upgraded to one of the special municipality cities in 2010, which led to deeper integration into the Greater Taipei Area.

    Taoyuan culture is composed of diverse groups, including Hakka, Minnan, mainlander Chinese immigrants, indigenous people, and new immigrants. However, with almost 40% of the population is Hakka, Taoyuan is the only special municipality in Taiwan where Hakka is the major ethnic group. This uniqueness in demography has enriched the diversity of the city.

    Taoyuan Government:

    Taichung City

    Taichung, literally ‘the center of Taiwan’, is the largest city of central Taiwan. Before the 18th century, the central area of Taiwan was controlled by the “Kingdom of Middag,” a plain indigenous supra-tribal alliance, until the Chinese Qing Dynasty government dismantled it in 1732. In the late 19th century, the Qing government was planning to separate Taiwan from the Fujian province and establishing Taiwan as an individual province. Taichung area was thus being chosen as the new provincial capital, and new city construction started. The new city and its peripherals were named as “Taiwan county.” However, due to an insufficient budget, the new capital project had to stop and later moved to Taipei instead.
    In 1896, the Japanese colonial government renamed the city “Taichung.”  

    In the center of Taiwan, Taichung plays an essential role in both Taiwan's economic development and transportation systems. It is the hub for the five cities and counties in the whole central region of Taiwan. Following the merger of Taichung city and county on December 25, 2010, Greater Taichung became second-largest among Taiwan's five special municipalities with a population of around 2.8 million. Surrounded by the mountains and sea, it possesses the precious asset of rich cultures of numerous townships and districts. Thus, Taichung city has established an inclusive land, sea, and air transportation network that is seamlessly connected to different parts of the city.

    Protected by the Central Mountain Range, it is rarely threatened by typhoons and is known as a city of sunshine, radiating warmth and energy. The city is made up of 29 administrative districts, each boasting unique distinctive cultural and natural landscapes. Therefore, a mixture of cultures slowly developed there during the Chinese Ming, Qing dynasties and the Japanese colonial period. Over the centuries, people from different backgrounds migrated to Taichung and settled down, and the city has become the cosmopolis, contributing to a great society of diverse cultures. Each year, Taichung city has held a great number of international and local cultural events.

    Taichung City Government:

    Tainan City

    As the oldest city of Taiwan, and famous for its long history and culture, Tainan, located in southern Taiwan, boasts many historical architectures and heritage sites.

    Tainan was established in 1624 by the Dutch East Indian Company. It was the first walled city in Taiwan and was also the place of origin of the name “Taiwan.” Today, Tainan has 34 districts; they were formerly under Tainan City and Tainan County under Tainan Provincial Government but came under Tainan City’s jurisdiction when Tainan was made a special municipality in 2010. As of 2018, the population of Tainan is around 1.88 million with an area around 259 square kilometers.

    A walk around Tainan is like stepping back in time. As the first city in Taiwan, it was the source of the development of people’s livelihood; you can visit the first Confucius temple or other various temples and see traditional belief passed on to this day; take a trip to the ancient canal and witness the ebb and flow of civilization. In Tainan, turn a corner, and you will encounter an ancient temple or historic site telling stories of the city from long ago.
    Tainan is also famed for its many reasonably priced, and delicious must-try snacks. The city’s food was once recommended by the renowned travel guide the Michelin Green Guide. Fresh and tasty beef soup, rice cake with dried fish and braised pork on top or aromatic steamed rice cake, etc., are unique staple foods and old-time snacks that are part of the foundation of Tainan’s gastronomic culture and bear the historical memories of 4 centuries.

    Tainan City Government:

    Kaohsiung City

    Kaohsiung is a beautiful and modern metropolis located in southern Taiwan, as well as the largest port city of this island, with a population of around 2.77 million and an area around 2,951 square kilometers.

    Before the 16th century, the area was the homeland of the Plain Indigenous tribe, the Makatao. The tribe named this area as “Takau,” literally means “the bamboo forest.” Thus when the Han Chinese immigrants moved into this area, they also called this area accordingly. In the Japanese colonial era, the Japanese government changed the original Chinese characters of “Takau” from “打狗 (Beat the dogs)” to “高雄 (after an area in Ukyo-Ku, Kyoto).” After Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (Taiwan), the government remain the Chinese characters “高雄” but changed its romanization from Japanese “Takao” to Mandarin “Kaohsiung” until today.

    Looking down from an airplane, one will see the abundant landscapes of Kaohsiung: the lush Chai Mountain and Banping Mountain, the clear and serene Lotus Pond, and Love River flowing across the city. The subtropical city boasts brilliant sunshine and gentle breezes from the passionate sea. Sitting between Cijin Island and downtown, the Port of Kaohsiung is a world-class port in Taiwan as well as a hub for international trade. The ceaseless ships and containers from around the world represent the energy and vitality of the business in Kaohsiung. Kaohsiung, a city of glamour, not only has unique features of mountains, seas, rivers, and ports but also possesses a rich culture and beautiful cityscape. 

    Kaohsiung City Government:

  • Natural Environment
    Nature Environment
    Located off the southeast coast of the Asian Continent and the western edge of the Pacific Ocean, between Japan and the Philippines, and in the center of the East-Asian island arc, Taiwan forms a vital line of communication in the Asia-Pacific region. It covers an area of approximately 36,000 square kilometers (14,400 square miles), and the North-South extent is bigger than the East-West measure. Two-thirds of the total area covered by forest mountains and the remaining area consists of hilly country, platforms and highlands, coastal plains and basins. The Central Mountain Range stretches along with the entire country from north to south, thus forming a natural line of demarcation for rivers on the eastern and western sides of the island. On the west side, lies the Yushan (Yu Mountain) Range with its main peak reaching 3,952 meters, the highest mountain peak in Northeast Asia.
    The Mountains
    Taiwan has been abundantly endowed with mountains; over 200 of its peaks are more than 3,000 meters high, making Taiwan geographically unique. As mountains can be found anywhere, mountain climbing is a popular leisure activity in Taiwan. One can choose to hike on the outskirts of the city or accept the challenge of climbing one of the many high mountains, following the course of streams and valleys, tracing back to the source of rivers, or crossing entire mountains. In any case, lush scenery will unfold your eyes, and it will not take too long for you to be convinced of the beauty of Taiwan's mountains.
    In addition, there are nine national parks which offer a variety of distinct topographic landscapes. For example, the Taroko National Park focused on a narrow ravine created by a river which has cut through the mountains; Yushan National Park, containing the highest landmark of Taiwan and also the highest peak in Northeast Asia; Shei-pa National Park, featuring dangerously steep slopes; Yangmingshan National Park, with its volcanic craters and lakes; Kenting National Park, encompassing the only tropical area in Taiwan which breathes a genuinely Southeast Asian atmosphere; Kinmen National Park, which greets visitors with white coral and shell beaches and other geological wonders. Finally, both culture and natural attractions await your discovery at Taijiang National Park.
    Sea World
    Taiwan has a vibrant marine ecology. You can see groups of bottlenose dolphins, spinner dolphins, Risso's dolphins, and pantropical spotted dolphins jumping out of the Pacific Ocean along the east. Azure seas and magnificent coral reefs can be found in Kending (Kenting) at the southern tip of Taiwan, Green Island, and the Penghu Archipelago. These are places for you to discover and be amazed.
    Taiwan has a warm and humid climate and a variety of terrain, including sandbars, plains, basins, hills, plateaus, and mountains. As a result, the country is home to abundant animal and plant life, including various endemic species, and can be regarded as one gigantic eco-park. Because of the formation of mud flats and mangroves along the coast, large numbers of migratory birds from around the world are attracted to Taiwan, where they use these coastal areas as a temporary shelter and rest area before they resume their journey. In spring and summer time, there are the birds that leave the tropics behind to spend this season in Taiwan, such as the eye-catching fairy pitta, known in Chinese as the eight-color bird. During the autumn time, birds from colder northern areas come to Taiwan to spend the winter, such as the black-faced spoonbill. The gray-faced buzzard will be right on time to participate in the Double Ten celebrations (Taiwan's national day) in October each year, and there are also countless other migratory birds that use Taiwan either as a stopover or as their final destination, one way or the other adding exuberant vitality to the island's wildlife.

    Tourism Bureau:


    (Taroko National Park; Penghu National Scenic Area; Black-faced Spoonbill source by Toursim Bereau of Taiwan, R.O.C )

  • Weather
    Taiwan has a long summer and a short, mild winter. The island, which is crossed by the Tropic of Cancer, boasts a variety of different climate zones. The northern and central regions are subtropical, the southern part is tropical, and its mountainous regions are temperate.
    Typically, the mean temperature of Taiwan ranges from around 18°C in winter to 28°C in summer. Low temperatures can drop below 10°C in winter, and high temperatures can surpass 35°C in summer.
    The rainy season in Taiwan, also known as the “plum rain season,” is from May to June. During this time, southwestern Taiwan is especially vulnerable to heavy rainfall, and afternoon thunderstorms are common. Typhoons are most frequent in July, August, and September.

    Central Weather Bureau:

  • Cuisine

    In Taiwan, people love to eat! There are vendors, snack shops and restaurants are everywhere in every town and city. Foods and dishes from around the world are available in Taiwan, but Taiwan’s native cuisine is unforgettable and has now gained worldwide attention – try it just once, and you’ll remember it forever. Great dishes such as pearl milk tea, Danzai noodles, shrimp pork soup, coffin sandwiches, veggie and meat wraps, oyster vermicelli, steamed sandwiches, and crushed ice dessert.

    Tourism Bureau:


    (Pearl Milk Tea; Danzai Noodles; Steamed Sandwich source by Toursim Bereau of Taiwan)

  • Culture and Language
    Taiwan is an important center in Sinosphere where Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, literature, architecture, arts and crafts, and traditional customs are well promoted and preserved. Also, Taiwan is also the origin of the expansion of Austronesian people, retaining the most diverse varieties of Austronesian languages and cultures. With a free and open society where different ethnic groups live in harmony, and with stable economic growth, Taiwan has developed a unique Taiwanese culture that incorporates various features and values of Chinese culture.
    A critical example of how Chinese culture has been preserved in Taiwan is the continual use of Traditional Chinese characters, which have been used for over 2,400 years since the Qin Dynasty. Taiwan plays a significant role in preserving and promoting the use of Traditional Chinese characters. Furthermore, 9 out of 10 subgroups of Austronesian languages can only be found in Taiwanese indigenous people nowadays, which substantially enriches the diversity of Taiwanese culture. 

    Taiwan Academy:


    (Glove Puppetry; Oil Paper Umbrellas; Spinning tops  source by Toursim Bereau, R.O.C)

  • Science and Technology
    Since the first comprehensive set of science and technology (S&T) policies of Taiwan, the “Guidelines for the Long-range Development of Science” formulated in 1959, many achievements of Taiwan in S&T are attributable to it and many more related supports from the public sectors.
    The 1990s saw the launch of a series of national science and technology programs to address needs ranging from telecommunications to disaster prevention. Meanwhile, the Fundamental Science and Technology Act of 1999 provided a sound legal framework for government promotion of S&T progress. As stipulated in the act, the government drafts national S&T development plans every four years.
    The private sector has also played a significant role in fostering Taiwan’s S&T development. Firms such as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and  Foxconn Technology Group have dominated the global market for custom-designed integrated circuit (IC) chips and a vast variety of other products. Taiwan is a major supplier of high-end components used in the manufacture of the products of internationally famous companies such as Apple, Microsoft, Intel, and Sony. It also boasts world-renowned electronics brands of its own such as Acer, ASUS and HTC.
    The public and private sectors continue to promote S&T advancement today. In 2016, Taiwan’s research and development (R&D) expenditure totaled NT$541.4 billion (US$17.26 billion), of which 13.1% came from government funding and 77.6% from private investment.
    According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2018, Taiwan is ranked No. 5 in expenditures on R&D, No. 2 in the patent application, and No. 4 in innovation capability among the 140 economies surveyed.

    Ministry of Science and Technology:


  • Economic Strength
    Taiwan plays an influential role in the global economy. According to the World Trade Organization’s statistics, it was the world’s 18th-largest exporter and 19th-largest importer of merchandise in 2017, while ranking 27th in the export and import of commercial services, respectively. As one of the most powerful players in the global information and communications technology (ICT) industry, Taiwan is also a major supplier of other goods across the industrial spectrum.
    A key factor underpinning such performance is the government’s policies to foster development and to sustain the nation’s economic competitiveness, by promoting investment in human resources, research, development, and industrial upgrading as well as other initiatives aimed at creating advantages for Taiwan’s economy. For such reasons, plus the strong entrepreneurial spirit, Taiwan’s business and investment environments have consistently been ranked as superior by well-regarded economic research organizations. For example, in 2019, the U.S. Business Environment  Risk Intelligence (BERI) ranked Taiwan the 4th in the world, 2nd in Asia safest environment for investment. 

    Ministry of Economic Affairs:

  • Geography

    Off the eastern and southeastern coasts of the Asian continent, lies a chain of island groups stretching from Russia’s Sakhalin Island to Indonesia’s myriad islands. Situated at the middle of the island chain, between Japan and the Philippines, is the island of Taiwan. Taiwan measures approximately 400 kilometers from north to south and around 145 kilometers from east to west at its widest.

  • Transportation
    Taiwan has a convenient and safe transport network. No matter what kind of transport you plan to use in Taiwan, it is always seamlessly connected, making your visit smoother and easier.
    In Taipei and Kaohsiung, the metro system is connected to the city bus system, reaching every spot in the city. Taiwan’s high-speed rail system provides a quality 300-kilometer per hour intercity rail service along Taiwan’s western corridor. The fastest service between Taipei and Kaohsiung takes only 105 minutes. The Taoyuan International Airport is connected to Taipei Main Station. Travel time between the airport and downtown Taipei is 35 minutes.
    With an electronic management system in Taipei, New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, and Changhua, YouBike provides bicycle rental services throughout the cities. The user may rent a bike in one station and return it at any other stations. With YouBike, people now have a more accessible connection with other public transportation, thus promotes an environment-friendly lifestyle and a green commute culture here in Taiwan.

    Tourism Bureau:


    ( Chic THSR Trains; Wenhu Line, Taipei MRT; YouBike Rental Stations source by Toursim Bereau, R.O.C)